Cryptography is the body of knowledge that relates to the protection of information in all its forms.

Through the application of cryptography, you can safeguard the confidentiality and maintain the integrity as well as the nonrepudiation and authentication of information.

Cryptography provides you with a means of keeping information away from prying eyes and gives you a way to keep the same information intact from alteration.

This chapter focuses on cryptography and its application in the modern world, but first itdelves into some of the rich history of the science to give you a firm foundation on which you can build your knowledge.

The science of cryptography provides a unique set of abilities that have been around as long as humans have wanted to share information with some but not with others.

Although technology, science, and computers have improved on the older methods, what has remained a constant is the underlying goal of protecting information


Cryptography in Action

You will encounter cryptography in many forms throughout this book.

It is applied to many different technologies and situations and, as such, is something you need to have a firm grasp of.

Here are some examples of applied cryptography:

Public key infrastructure (PKI)

Digital certificates Authentication




Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

Secure Shell (SSH)

So How Does It Work?

Cryptography has many different ways of functioning. Before you can understand the basic process, you must become familiar with some terminology. With this in mind, let’s look at a few of the main terms used in the field of cryptography:
Plain Text/Clear Text Plain text is the original message. It has not been altered; it is the usable information. Remember that even though Caesar’s cipher operates on text, it is but one form of plain text. Plain text can literally be anything.

Cipher Text Cipher text is the opposite of plain text; it is a message or other data that has been transformed into a different format using a mechanism known as an algorithm. It is also something that can be reversed using an algorithm and a key.

Algorithms Ciphers, the algorithms for transforming clear text into cipher text, are the trickiest and most mysterious part of the encryption process. This component sounds complex, but the algorithm or cipher is nothing more than a formula that includes discrete steps that describe how the encryption and decryption process is to be performed in a given instance.

Keys Keys are an important, and frequently complicated, item. A key is a discrete piece of information, usually random in nature, that determines the result or output of a given cryptographic operation. A key in the cryptographic sense can be thought of in the same way a key in the physical world is: as a special item used to open or unlock something—in this case, a piece of information. In the encryption world, a key is used to produce a meaningful result and without it a result would not be possible.


Symmetric Cryptography

Symmetric algorithms do some things really well and other things not so well. Modern symmetric algorithms are great at all of the following:

  • Preserving confidentiality
  • Increased speed over many non-symmetric systems
  • Ensuring simplicity (relatively speaking, of course)
  • Providing authenticity

Symmetric algorithms have drawbacks in these areas:

  • Key management issues
  • Lack of nonrepudiation features

Common Symmetric Algorithms

There are currently a myriad of symmetric algorithms available to you; a Google search turns up an endless sea of alphabet soup of algorithms.

Let’s look at some common algorithms in the symmetric category:

Data Encryption Standard (DES) Originally adopted by the U.S. Government in 1977, the DES algorithm is still in use today. DES is a 56-bit key algorithm, but the key is too short to be used today for any serious security applications. DES is still encountered in many applications but should never be chosen without very careful consideration or the lack of other viable options.

Triple DES (3DES) This algorithm is an extension of the DES algorithm and is three times more powerful than the DES algorithm. The algorithm uses a 168-bit key. Triple DES, or 3DES, is very commonly used and is a component of many security solutions including e-commerce and others.

Blowfish Blowfish is an algorithm that was designed to be strong, fast, and simple in its design. The algorithm uses a 448-bit key and is optimized for use in today’s 32- and 64-bit processors (which its predecessor DES was not). The algorithm was designed by encryption expert Bruce Schneier.

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) Designed in Switzerland and made available in 1990, this algorithm is seen in applications such as the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) system

RC2 Originally an algorithm that was a trade secret of RSA Labs, the RC2 algorithm crept into the public space in 1996. The algorithm allows keys between 1 and 2,048 bits. The RC2 key length was traditionally limited to 40 bits in software that was exported to allow for decryption by the U.S. National Security Agency.

RC4 Another algorithm that was originally a trade secret of RSA Labs, RC4, was revealed to the public via a newsgroup posting in 1994. The algorithm allows keys between 1 and 2,048 bits. RC4 is notable for its inclusion in the Wired Equivalent Protection (WEP) protocol used in early wireless networks.

RC5 Similar to RC2 and RC4, RC5 allows users to define a key length.

RC6 RC6 is another AES finalist developed by RSA Labs and supports key lengths of 128– 256 bits.

Rijndael or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) This successor to DES was chosen by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to be the new U.S. encryption standard. The algorithm is very compact and fast and can use keys that are 128-, 192-, or 256-bits long. Rijndael was and is the name of the encryption algorithm submitted for consideration by the U.S. Government as its new encryption standard. When the algorithm was selected, it was renamed AES. While some may argue that Rijndael and AES are different, they are for all intents and purposes the same.

Twofish This AES candidate, also developed by Bruce Schneier, supports key lengths of 128–256 bits.